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  4. Kai,Hidetaka(1992) Competitive Strategy Under Standardization in the Personal Computer Industry and Its Influence on New Entrants, unpublished S.M. thesis (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Alfred P. Sloan School of Management), May 1992.


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  2. Einstein,Marcus E. AND Janes C. Franklin “Computer manufacturing enters a new era of growth,” Monthly Labor Review, September 1986
    同論文のp.10のTable 1 “Domestic consumption of micro, mini, and mainframe computers,’ 1960-84″が役立つ

  3. Bresnahan, Timothy F.; Stern, Scott; Trajtenberg, Manuel(1996) “Market segmentation and the sources of rents from innovation : personal computers in the late 1980’s” Working paper (Sloan School of Management) ; 3927., WP (International Center for Research on the Management of Technology) ; 154-96.Cambridge, MA :
  4. International Center for Research on the Management of Technology, Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,64pp.


  1. Augarten, Stan (1984) Bit by Bit: An Illustrated History of Computers , Ticknor & Fields.
  2. Duetsch, Larry L.(2002) Industry studies, M E Sharpe Inc.,pp.322-323
  3. Freiberger,Paul and Michael Swaine (1984) Fire in the Valley: The Making of the  Personal Computer, Osborne/McGraw-Hill.
  4. Loebbecke,James K. and Miklos Vasarhely (1986)  Microcomputers , Irwin.


  1. T. Modis and A. Debecker, “Innovation in the Computer Industry,”  Technological  Forecasting and Social Change, Vol.33 (1988), pp.267-278.


  1. Owen W. Linzmayer (1998) Apple Confidential : The Real Story of Apple Computer, Inc.,p.99